1.General Samples

AQUAMICRON®AXI/CXU
AQUAMICRON®AX/CXU
AQUAMICRON®AS/CXU
Points
  • Normally AXI/CXU or AX/CXU should be used.
  • AS is used for specimens that do not dissolve readily in AXI or AX.
    Alternatively, the AXI or AX to which chloroform is added can be used for such a specimen (approximately 20 vol%)
When to change the reagent
  • When 100ml of AXI (AX, AS) increases to around 150ml with the addition of the specimen.
  • When CXU has turned dark brown, or when decreasing of background is poor.
  • When the cumulative amount of moisture measured per 100ml of AXI, AX or AS exceeds 800mg.
  • When the cumulative amount of moisture measured per 5ml of CXU exceeds 150mg.
  • When the measurement time is prolonged.

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2.Amines

AQUAMICRON®AXI+salicylic acid/CXU
AQUAMICRON®AX+salicylic acid/CXU
Points
  • With amines that show strong-basicity (pKa8-9 or higher), add salicylic acid to adjust the pH of the anolyte.
  • 10g of salicylic acid is placed in the electrolyte cell and dissolved in 100ml of AXI or AX.
  • Approximately 70mmol with 10g of salicylic acid
    → The equivalent of 70mmol of amines can be measured continuously.

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3.Ketones, Lower Carboxylic Acid

AQUAMICRON®AKX/CXU
Points
  • When problems are encountered, such as poor background decrease or slow measurement, it is possible that the detection electrodes may be contaminated. Wipe them lightly with a tissue paper, etc.
  • Solid ketones are unlikely to cause interference reactions (ketal reaction) and can therefore be measured using general-purpose AXI or AX.
When to change the reagent
  • If the measurement time increases when more specimen is added, or if decrease of background deteriorates.
  • When CXU has turned dark brown.
  • When the cumulative amount of moisture measured per 100ml of AKX exceeds 300mg.
  • When the cumulative amount of moisture measured per 5ml of CXU exceeds 300mg.

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4.Solids, Powders (Moisture vaporization method)

AQUAMICRON®AXI/CXU
AQUAMICRON®AX/CXU
Points
  • Normally, 150-180ml of AXI or AX and 10ml of CXU are used with the moisture vaporization method.
  • AKX is used if the substances vaporized from the specimen include ketones.
  • Extended used of moisture vaporization equipment will cause a reduction of AXI or AX due to methanol evaporation. Add commercially available methanol.
When to change the reagent
  • If the measurement time increases or it decrease of background deteriorates.
  • See 1.General Samples for information about the quantities of specimens for which moisture can be measured.

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5.General Specimens

SS-Z/GEX
SS/MS
Points
  • Normally 50ml of dehydrated solvent GEX (MS) is used (with Mitsubishi Chemical equipment).
  • It is necessary to determine the titer of the SS-Z (SS).
    E. g. Use Aquamicron® Water Standard 10mg.
When to change the reagent
  • When 50ml of dehydrated solvent increases to 150ml with the addition of SS-Z (SS) and the specimen (general specimens).

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6.Amines

SS-Z/GEX +salicylic acid
SS/MS +salicylic acid
Points
  • With amines that show strong-basicity (pKa8-9 or higher), add salicylic acid to adjust the pH of the titration solvent.
  • Place 10g of salicylic acid in a titration flask and dissolve it in 50ml of dehydrated solvent.
  • Approximately 70mmol with 10g of salicylic acid.
    → The equivalent of 70mmol of amines can be measured continuously.

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7.Petroleum Products and Oils

SS-Z/OLX
SS/CM
Points
  • Some specimens may not dissolve completely. These substances can be measured, however, since moisture will be extracted into the methanol while dispersed.
  • OL II, containing chloroform, is still suitable for measuring the moisture of fats.
Precautions when Disposing of Waste Liquid
  • SS, CM and OL II are containing chloroform.

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8.Sugers and Condiments

SS-Z/SU
SS/FM
Points
  • If the specimen is difficult to dissolve, SU (FM) can be heated to 40°C. This will require a mantle heater and special titration flask (sold separately).
  • With substances that contain large amounts of oils, such as chocolate, it is useful to add about 5ml of chloroform to the SU (FM).
  • The recovery rate for SU (FM) will be low initially.
  • The titer of SS-Z (SS) can be determined with a general-purpose product.
  • Measure the sample after first measuring 5-10\\l of water to determine the recovery rate.

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9.Ketones

SS-Z/KTX
SS/CP
Points
  • Pyridine-free and chloroform-free dehydrated solvents for use with ketones are not compatible with pyridine-type products. Always use the same type pf products (SS-Z and KTX, or SS and CP)-General-use, oil or sugar dehydrated solvents can also be used.)
  • Solid ketones are unlikely to cause interference reactions and can therefore be measured with general-purpose dehydrated solvents.
Precautions when Disposing of Waste Liquid
  • SS/CP contains chloroform.

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10.Aldehydes

SS/PP
Points
  • Aldehydes tend to cause interference reactions.
  • The amount of specimen used should be kept to a minimum in order to reduce the interference reactions.
  • Only SS (pyridine types) are available.

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11.Solid, Powders (Moisture Vaporization Method)

SS-Z/GEX+PG
SS/MS+PG
Points
  • With the moisture vaporization method, use approximately 100-120ml of solvent.
  • Add commercially available propylene glycol (PG) to GEX (MS) in the ratio of 1:3 to prevent blockages in the blowing pipe and reduce evaporation.
    E. g. Add approximately 25ml of PG to approximately 75ml of GEX (MS) to make a total of 100ml.
When to change the reagent
  • When the amount of dehydrated solvents exceeds 150ml due to the addition of SS-Z (SS) and the specimen.

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12.Other Substances

  • There may be situations in which another method is preferable to the KF method, or when the flowchart does not apply.
  • For specific inquiries, please contact us.

Tetsutaro Kiya (Mr.)
Product Manager for Aquamicron
API Corporation
2-3-4, Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 103-0027 Japan
TEL :+81-3-5205-0632
FAX :+81-3-5205-0641

E-mail: mcckf@cc.m-kagaku.co.jp

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